CA
Foundation

All india rank 34

Sri Krishna S

  • CA Foundation
  • 🥇1st Attempt
  • Marks obtained - (334/400)
  • Batch - Nov 2019
All india rank 45

Suhas R Shetty

  • CA Foundation
  • 🥇1st Attempt
  • Marks obtained - (319/400)
  • Batch - Nov 2019
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CA Foundation

Full form of CA is Chartered Accountant. But then what is CA? Well, let us see what it means -

  • Government of India, through an act of Parliament, established The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) to regulate the Chartered Accountancy (CA) profession in India. Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) is the 2nd largest professional body of Chartered Accountants in the world.
  • Chartered Accountancy is a Professional course with 3 levels – Foundation, Intermediate and Final. This course has worldwide recognition.
  • Whether it is a company, sole proprietorship, partnership, LLP, Trust, HUF, Society or any other form of organisation, all of them would have some requirement where they would require the services of a CA. In that sense, Chartered Accountant is a very important person for any business, NGO, hospital or educational institution today.
  • Normally, whenever we talk about CA profession, students think that the work of a CA is mainly related to accounting. But that is not all. A Chartered Accountant, today works in the areas of Accounting, Financial Management, Taxation, Corporate Law, Corporate Finance, Stock market, Banking (retail, corporate or investment banking), Project Finance, Capital markets, Private Equity or IT. So, if you are a CA, a wide array of jobs across various industries await you. Thus, you have amazing career options which only very few elite courses/degrees provide in India.
  • Apart from career options, one more thing which attracts students to CA course is the salary and employment opportunities. An average salary of Chartered Accountant as per various estimates ranges from INR 8 - 12 lakhs. We also heard that one of the students got a salary of around INR 38 lakhs in August 2019 round of campus placement organised by ICAI.
  • A CA can either work for himself (called practice) or work for a company. There are almost 1.15 million active companies is India. And there are only about 0.5 million CAs in India. Now interesting part is that a lot of companies hire hundreds if not thousands of CAs. So, demand for CAs is real and hence, a CA whether he/she is working or practising never finds it difficult to find work. Lastly, CA is a very economical course to pursue. Compared to other courses, it is a very cheap course to enrol in.
  • Pursuing this course is about competing with yourself. Merit and only merit works. It is about whether you have cleared an exam or not. The end result is whether you have passed the level or not.
  • All you need to be is a 12th pass (50% marks) to pursue CA.
  • So, once you have written your 12th exam, you can start thinking about appearing for CA Foundation, which is like an entrance exam to CA course.
  • ursue. Compared to other courses, it is a very cheap course to enrol in.
  • Once you complete the CA Foundation, then you progress to the next level which is CA Intermediate.
  • Between the CA Intermediate and CA Final levels, you will also need to go through a 3 year paid Articleship (like an internship) with a Practising CA where you will learn all about the practical aspects of the profession.
  • Please note that you can continue pursuing your degree along with CA.
  • For more details, please click on the link https://www.icai.org/new_post.html?post_id=5719&c_id=313
  • Lot of people say CA is tough, difficult and impossible to clear. While first two expressions are correct, the last one is a not so true.
  • CA course across the 3 levels tests lot of behavioural aspects of the students apart from the knowledge of subject. For being successful in the CA exams, the usual traits like hard work and being thorough with your concepts are very helpful. Other important aspects which students needs to pay attention to are methodical preparation, a killer instinct and a focussed and disciplined approach to preparing.
  • Remember, a lot of students are pursuing CA and continue to clear various levels. So, it is not an impossible thing to pass CA. Yes, it is not an easy course but then what comes easy in this world!!!

Syllabus for CA Foundation

There are 4 papers in CA Foundation - (click on the link then detailed syllabus opens)

(One paper – Three hours – 100 Marks)

Descriptive paper

Objective:

To develop an understanding of the basic concepts and principles of Accounting and acquire the ability to apply the same in preparing financial statements and simple problem solving.

  • Theoretical Framework
    • Meaning and Scope of accounting
    • Accounting Concepts, Principles and Conventions
    • Accounting terminology – Glossary
    • Capital and revenue expenditure, Capital and revenue receipts, Contingent assets and contingent liabilities
    • Accounting Policies
    • Accounting as a Measurement Discipline – Valuation Principles, Accounting Estimates.
    • Accounting Standards –Concepts and Objectives.
    • Indian Accounting Standards – Concepts and Objectives.
  • Accounting Process
    • Books of Accounts
    • Preparation of Trial Balance
    • Rectification of Errors.
  • Bank Reconciliation Statement

    Introduction, reasons, preparation of bank reconciliation statement.

  • Inventories

    Cost of inventory, Net realizable value, Basis and technique of inventory valuation and record keeping.

  • Concept and Accounting of Depreciation

    Concepts, Methods of computation and accounting treatment of depreciation, Change in depreciation methods.

  • Accounting for Special Transactions
    • Bills of exchange and promissory notes Meaning of Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes and their Accounting Treatment; Accommodation bills.
    • Sale of goods on approval or return basis Meaning of goods sent on approval or return basis and accounting treatment.
    • Consignments Meaning and Features of consignment business, Difference between sale and consignment, Accounting treatments for consignment transactions and events in the books of consignor and consignee.
    • Average due Date Meaning, Calculation of average due date in various situations.
    • Account Current Meaning of Account Current, Methods of preparing Account Current.
  • Final Accounts of Sole Proprietors

    Elements of financial statements, Closing Adjustment Entries, Trading Account, Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet of Manufacturing and Non-manufacturing entities.

  • Partnership Accounts
    • Final Accounts of Partnership Firms.
    • Admission, Retirement and Death of a Partner including Treatment of Goodwill.
    • Introduction to LLPs and Distinction of LLPs from Partnership.
  • Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations

    Significance of Receipt and Payment Account, Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet, Difference between Profit and Loss Account and Income and Expenditure Account. Preparation of Receipt and Payment Account, Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet.

  • Introduction to Company Accounts
    • Definition of shares and debentures
    • Issue of shares and debentures, forfeiture of shares, re-issue of forfeited shares
    • Statement of Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet as per Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013.

(One paper – Three hours – 100 Marks)

Descriptive paper

SECTION A : BUSINESS LAWS (60 MARKS)

Objective:

To develop an understanding of significant provisions of select business laws and acquire the ability to address basic application-oriented issues.

Contents

  • The Indian Contract Act, 1872:

    An overview of Sections 1 to 75 covering the general nature of contract, consideration, other essential elements of a valid contract, performance of contract, breach of contract, Contingent and Quasi Contract.

  • The Sale of Goods Act, 1930:

    Formation of the contract of sale, Conditions and Warranties, Transfer of ownership and delivery of goods, Unpaid seller and his rights.

  • The Indian Partnership Act, 1932:

    General Nature of Partnership, Rights and duties of partners, Reconstitution of firms, Registration and dissolution of a firm.

  • The Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008:

    Introduction- covering nature and scope, Essential features, characteristics of LLP, Incorporation and differences with other forms of organizations.

  • The Companies Act, 2013 :

    Essential features of company, corporate veil theory, Classes of companies, types of share capital, Incorporation of company, Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association, Doctrine of Indoor Management Note: If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations, the syllabus would include the corresponding provisions of such new legislations with effect from dates notified by the Institute.

SECTION B : BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE AND REPORTING (MARKS 40)

Objective: To acquire and develop good communication skills requisite for business correspondence and reporting.

Part – I: Communication

  • Communication
    • Types
    • Directions
    • Network
    • Process
    • Problems
    • Barriers
    • Types of Communication
      • a) Interpersonal Skills
      • b) Listening Skills
      • c) Emotional Intelligence
    • Sample Questions with Answers
    • Exercises

    Part – II : Sentence Types and Word Power

  • Sentence Types (Direct-Indirect, Active -Passive Speech)
    • Sentence: Definition
    • Classification of sentence based on connotation a) Assertive sentences b) Interrogative sentences c) Imperative sentences d) Exclamatory sentences e) Optative sentences
    • Sentence Structure a) Subject and Predicate b) Verb (Auxiliary, Finite) c) Object (Direct, Indirect) d) Complement e) Adjunct or Adverbial f) Clause Structure g) Types of Clauses - Independent clauses - Dependent clauses - Relative or noun clauses
    • Types of sentences a) Simple sentence b) Compound sentence c) Complex sentence d) Compound-complex sentence
    • Direct-Indirect Speech
      • a) Introduction
      • b) Procedure for converting Direct speech into Indirect speech –
        • Rules for converting Direct speech into Indirect speech
        • Change in pronouns
        • Change in tenses
        • Change in modals
        • Changes for Imperative sentences
        • Changes for Exclamatory sentences
        • Changes for Interrogative sentences
        • Punctuation in Direct speech
      • c) Rules for converting Indirect speech into Direct speech
    • Active Passive Voice: Introduction
      • a) Usage : Active vs. passive voice
      • b) Reasons for using Passive voice
      • c) Changing Passive voice to Active voice
      • d) Changing Active voice to Passive voice
      • e) Suggestions for using Active and Passive voice
    • Verbs Voice Active or passive
    • Exercises
  • Vocabulary Root Words, Synonyms, Antonyms, Prefixes, Suffixes), Phrasal verbs, Collocations and Idioms.
    • Introduction
    • Significance of improving vocabulary
    • How to improve vocabulary
    • Root words
    • Synonyms and Antonyms
    • Words formed by using Prefixes
    • Words formed by using Suffixes
    • Phrasal verbs
    • Collocations
    • Idioms
    • Exercises

    Part – III : Comprehension Passages and Note Making

  • Comprehension Passages
    • Introduction to Comprehension Passages
    • Points to ponder
    • Sample Passages with answers
    • Exercises
  • Note Making
    • Introduction to Note Making
    • Significance of Note Making
    • Detailed Format Heading(Title)
      • Sub-heading
      • Indentation
      • Points
      • Use of abbreviations
      • Summary
      • Content
      • Expression
      • Steps to Comprehend and summarize text (v) Helpful Hints (vi) Sample Passages with Notes
      • Exercises

    Part – IV : Developing Writing Skills

  • Introduction to Basic Writing
    • Introduction
    • Process of writing
    • Styles of Writing
    • Significance of writing skills for students
    • Writing Conventions
    • Characteristics of good writing
    • Do’s and Don’ts of good writing
  • Précis Writing
    • What is Précis writing?
    • Features of good Précis writing
    • How to write a Précis
    • Do’s and Don’ts of Précis writing
    • Examples (Passages with Précis)
    • Exercises
  • Article Writing
    • What is an Article?
    • Essential elements of Article Writing
    • Detailed Format
      • a) Title
      • b) By- Writer’s Name
      • c) Body - Introduction - Main Idea-Support - Conclusion
      • d) Sample Articles
      • e) Exercises
  • Report Writing
    • What is a Report?
    • Essential elements of Report Writing
    • Kinds of Reports
      • a) Reporting for a Meeting/Assembly
      • b) Reporting for a Newspaper
      • c) Reporting for a Magazine
    • Detailed Format for (iii) above
      • a) Title
      • b) By- Writer’s Name
      • c) Place, Date
      • d) Body - What - When - Where - Who - How
      • e) Tips and Conventions of Report Writing
      • f) Sample Reports
      • g) Exercises
  • Writing Formal Letters
    • Types of Letters
      • a) Circulars
      • b) Complaints
      • c) Memos
      • d) Promotional Content
      • e) Sales
      • f) Recovery/Remittances
    • Detailed format for (i) above
      • a) Date
      • b) Salutation
      • c) Subject
      • d) Body of the letter –
        • First paragraph
        • Second paragraph
      • e) Complimentary Closure
    • Points to Remember
    • Sample Letters
    • Exercises
  • Writing Formal Mails
    • How to Write a Formal Mail?
    • Writing Effective Mails
    • Essential elements of Mails
      • a) Subject line
      • b) Formal Greetings
      • c) Target Audience(Reader)
      • d) Clarity and Conciseness

(One paper – Three hours – 100 Marks)

Objective format-Multiple Choice Questions

Objective:

  • a) To develop an understanding of the basic mathematical and statistical tools and their application in Business, Finance and Economics.
  • b) To develop logical reasoning skills and apply the same in simple problem solving.

Part – A. Business Mathematics (40 Marks)

  • Ratio and Proportion, Indices and Logarithms

    Ratio and Proportion (Business Applications related to Ration and Proportion) Laws of Indices, Exponents and Logarithms and Anti Logarithms.

  • Equations and Matrices
    • Equations: Simultaneous linear equations up to three variables, Quadratic and Cubic equations in one variable.
    • Matrices: Algebra of Matrices, Inverse of a Matrix and determinants, solving system of equations by Cramer’s Rule (involving not more than three variables).
  • Linear Inequalities with Objective Functions and Optimization w.r.t. objective function.
  • Time value of Money
    • Simple Interest
    • Compound interest
    • Depreciation
    • Effective Rate of Interest
    • Present Value
    • Net Present Value
    • Future Value
    • Perpetuity
    • Annuities
    • Sinking Funds
    • Valuation of Bonds
    • Calculating of EMI
    • Calculations of Returns:
      • a) Nominal Rate of Return
      • b) Effective Rate of Return
      • c) Compound Annual growth rate (CAGR)
  • Permutations and Combinations Basic concepts of Permutations and Combinations:

    Introduction, the Factorial, Permutations, results, Circular Permutations, Permutations with restrictions, Combinations with standard results.

  • Sequence and Series

    Introduction Sequences, Series, Arithmetic and Geometric progression, Relationship between AM and GM and Sum of n terms of special series

  • Sets, Relations and Functions
  • Basic applications of Differential and Integral calculus (Excluding the trigonometric applications), Applications of Marginal Cost and Marginal Revenue etc.,

Part – B: Logical Reasoning (20 Marks)

  • Number series, Coding and Decoding and odd man out.
  • Direction Tests
  • Seating Arrangements
  • Blood Relations
  • Syllogism

Part – C: Statistics (40 Marks)

  • Statistical description of Data

    Statistical Representation of Data, Diagrammatic representation of data, Frequency distribution, Graphical representation of Frequency Distribution – Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Ogive, Pie-chart.

  • Measures of Central tendency and Dispersion Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion:

    Mean Median, Mode, Mean Deviation, Quartiles and Quartile Deviation, Standard Deviation, Co-efficient of Variation, Coefficient of Quartile Deviation.

  • Probability

    Probability: Independent and dependent events; mutually exclusive events. Total and Compound Probability and Mathematical Expectation.

  • Theoretical Distributions

    Theoretical Distributions: Binomial Distribution, Poisson distribution – Basic application and Normal Distribution – Basic applications.

  • Correlation and Regression

    Correlation and Regression: Scatter diagram, Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation Rank Correlation, Probable Error and Probable limits. Regression lines, Regression equations, Regression coefficients.

  • Index Numbers and Time Series
    • Index Numbers: Uses of Index Numbers, Problems involved in construction of Index Numbers, Methods of construction of Index Numbers.
    • Time Series Analysis – Components of Time Series and Calculation of Trend by Moving Average Method.

(One paper – Three hours – 100 Marks)

Objective format- Multiple Choice Questions

PART I : BUSINESS ECONOMICS (60 Marks)

  • Introduction to Business Economics
    • Meaning and scope of Business Economics
    • Basic Problems of an Economy and Role of Price Mechanism.
  • Theory of Demand and Supply
    • Meaning and determinants of demand, Law of demand and Elasticity of demand ─ Price, income and cross elasticity
    • Theory of consumer’s behaviour – Marshallian approach and Indifference curve approach
    • Meaning and determinants of supply, Law of supply and Elasticity of supply.
    • Demand Forecasting
  • Theory of Production and Cost
    • Meaning and Factors of production
    • Laws of Production – The Law of Variable proportions and Laws of Returns to Scale, Producer’s equilibrium
    • Concepts of Costs ─ Short-run and long-run costs, Average and marginal costs, Total, fixed and variable costs.
  • Price Determination in Different Markets
    • Various forms of markets – Perfect Competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly
    • Price determination in these markets.
  • Business Cycles
    • Meaning
    • Phases
    • Features
    • Causes behind these Cycles

PART – II : BUSINESS AND COMMERCIAL KNOWLEDGE (40 MARKS)

  • Business and Commercial Knowledge – An Introduction

    Nature of Business, Profession and Employment. Objectives of Business. Economic and Non-Economic Activities, Forms of Business Organizations.

  • Business Environment

    Micro and Macro Environment, Elements of Micro Environment – Consumers/Customers, Competitors, Organization, Market, suppliers, Intermediaries, Elements of Macro Environment – Demographic, Economic, Political-legal, Socio-cultural, Technological, Global Environment.

  • Business Organizations

    Overview of selected Indian and Global Companies

  • Government Policies for Business Growth

    Policies creating conducive business environment such as Liberalization, Privatization, Foreign Direct Investment.

  • Organizations Facilitating Business
    • Indian Regulatory Bodies – RBI, SEBI, CCI, IRDAI
    • Indian Development Banks – IFCI, SIDBI, EXIM Bank, NABARD
  • Common Business Terminologies
    • Finance and Stock & Commodity Markets Terminology.
    • Marketing Terminology.
    • Banking Terminology.
    • Other Business Terminology.

17, 500 (incl taxes)

  • 270 hours of Live classes
  • 30 hours of revision and doubt clarification classes
  • 100 hours of Assessments
  • 8 mock tests with complete analysis by expert faculty
  • Personalised User ID for all students to track performance
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  • Question Bank with 5000+ questions
  • Personalised attention for performing students
  • Last 5 attempt question papers and suggested answers
  • Extra Classes for Maths